Black-Box Security Testing of Browser-Based Security Protocols

PhD Candidate Avinash Sudhodanan

April 14, 2017
Versione stampabile

Time: April 14, 2017, h. 10:30 am
Location: Room Ofek, Polo scientifico e tecnologico “Fabio Ferrari”, Building Povo 1 - Povo (Trento)

PhD Candidate

Dr. Avinash Sudhodanan

Abstract of Dissertation

Millions of computer users worldwide use the Internet every day for consuming web-based services (e.g., for purchasing products from online stores, for storing sensitive files in cloud-based file storage web sites, etc.). Browser-based security protocols (i.e. security protocols that run over the Hypertext Transfer Protocol and are executable by commercial web-browsers) are used to ensure the security of these services. Multiple parties are often involved in these protocols. For instance, a browser-based security protocol for Single Sign-On (SSO in short) typically consists of a user (controlling a web browser), a Service Provider web site and an Identity Provider (who authenticates the user). Similarly, a browser-based security protocol for Cashier-as-a-Service (CaaS) scenario consists of a user, a Service Provider web site (e.g., an online store) and a Payment Service Provider (who authorizes payments).
The design and implementation of browser-based security protocols are usually so complex that several vulnerabilities are often present even after intensive inspection. This is witnessed, for example, by vulnerabilities found in various browser-based security protocols such as SAML SSO v2.0, OAuth Core 1.0, etc. even years after their publication, implementation, and deployment. Although techniques such as formal verification and white-box testing can be used to perform security analysis of browser-based security protocols, currently they have limitations: the necessity of having formal models that can cope with the complexity of web browsers (e.g., cookies, client-side scripting, etc.), the poor support offered for certain programming languages by white-box testing tools, to name a few. What remains is black-box security testing. However, currently available black-box security testing techniques for browser-based security protocols are either scenario-specific (i.e. they are specific for SSO or CaaS, not both) or do not support very well the detection of vulnerabilities enabling replay attacks (commonly referred to as logical vulnerabilities) and Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF in short).
The goal of this thesis is to overcome the drawbacks of the black-box security testing techniques mentioned above. At first this thesis presents an attack pattern-based black-box testing technique for detecting vulnerabilities enabling replay attacks and social login CSRF in multi-party web applications (i.e. web applications utilizing browser-based security protocols involving multiple parties). These attack patterns are inspired by the similarities in the attack strategies of previously-discovered attacks against browser-based security protocols. Second, we present manual and semi-automatic black-box security testing strategies for detecting 7 different types of CSRF attacks, targeting the authentication and identity management functionalities of web sites. We also provide proof-of-concept implementations of our ideas. These implementations are based on OWASP ZAP (a prominent, free and open-source penetration testing tool).
This thesis being in the context of an industrial doctorate, we had the opportunity to analyse the use-cases provided by our industrial partner, SAP, to further improve our approach. In addition, to access the effectiveness of the techniques we propose, we applied them against the browser-based security protocols of many prominent web sites and discovered nearly 340 serious security vulnerabilities affecting more than 200 web sites, including the web sites of prominent vendors such as Microsoft, eBay, etc.