Expedition Neuron 2022 - searching for molecular biological reasons for longevity of Greenland shark
- Vaclav Brazda, Ph.D.-Institute of Biophysics ASCR, v.v.i.- Brno, Czech Republic
The length of human life has increased significantly in recent centuries. However, there are several organisms that can live much longer. Our comparative analysis shows an extraordinary maximum lifespan of the Greenland shark (400 years) compared to other shark species (the lifespan of none of the more than 50 biological species exceeds 70 years). Not even other classes of vertebrates (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians) even come close to such high longevity. Therefore, it is surprising that no one has yet investigated the longevity of the Greenland shark from the point of molecular biology view. Therefore, our research hypothesis is that this organism possesses a certain molecular-genetic "trick" that allows it to successfully escape aging processes on the one hand and on the other hand prevent tumorigenesis, which is associated with the accumulation of mutations as a function of time. Specific variations of p53 protein are associated with longevity, how Greenland shard deals with telomeres shortening and what is his reason for longevity? It is surprising that the Greenland shark remains a side of interest for molecular biologists and geneticists, therefore our expedition would like to reveal the veil of mystery of the genome of this admirable organism. It is highly likely that the knowledge gained will be useful to a certain extent for the general theory of aging of vertebrates, including humans, and for finding new ways to successfully influence the process of aging and tumor growth.