# On some optimal control problems on networks, stratified domains, and controllability of motion in fluids

**Place:** Seminar Room "-1" - Department of Mathematics - Via Sommarive 14 - Povo - Trento

at **15.00 p.m.**

**Rosario Maggistro**-*PhD**in mathematics*

*Abstract:*

The thesis deals with various problems arising in deterministic control, jumping processes and control for locomotion in fluids. It is divided in three parts. The first part is focused on some optimal control problems on network and stratified domains with junctions, where each edge/hyper-plane has its own controlled dynamics and cost. We consider some possible approximations for such a problems given by the use of a switching rule of delayed-relay type and study the passage to the limit when the parameter of the approximation goes to zero. First, we take into account some problems on network: a twofold junction problem, a threefold junction one and an extension of the last one. For each of these problems we characterize the limit functions as viscosity solution and maximal subsolution of a suitable Hamilton-Jacobi problem. Secondly, we consider a bi-dimensional multi-domain problem and as done for the problems on network we characterize the limit function as viscosity solution of a suitable Hamilton-Jacobi problem. The second part studies a decentralized routing problem over a network, using the paradigm of mean-field games with large number of players. Building on a state-space extension technique, we turn the problem into an optimal control one for each single player. The main contribution is an explicit expression of the optimal decentralized control which guarantees the convergence both to local and to global equilibrium points. Furthermore, we study the stability of the system also in the presence of a delay which we model using an hysteresis operator. As a result of the hysteresis, we prove existence of multiple equilibrium points and analyze convergence conditions. In the last part of the thesis we investigate different strategies to overcome the so-called scallop paradox concerning periodic locomotion in fluid. We show how to obtain a net motion exploiting the fluid’s type change during a periodic deformation. We consider two different models: in the first one that change is linked to the magnitude of the opening and closing velocity of the scallop’s valves. Instead, in the second one it is related to the sign of the above velocity. In both cases we prove that the mechanical system is controllable, i.e. the scallop is able to move both forward and backward using cyclical deformations.

**Supervisor: **Fabio Bagagiolo